Would Jesus bomb IS? – by Claire Mathys

ISISSince the UK decided to join other Western countries in airstrikes against the so-called Islamic State (IS), many Christians have been wrestling with whether this decision was the right one.

FighterOne question is whether bombing is morally justifiable. Another is whether it is strategically wise. Both sit against a backdrop of the 2003 Iraqi invasion and painful thoughts about what was actually achieved.

Barbaric acts

Given the devastation that is taking place in the affected regions – the barbaric acts including beheadings, kidnappings and sexual slavery – can we possibly be justified in sitting back and doing nothing?

Ethnic cleansing is taking place, with minorities being given the choice of leaving or being killed. Now that we know all that we do about Hitler and his treatment of Jews, it is hard to imagine how non-intervention would have been right in that case. Is the current situation morally different?

Two directions

Christians looking to their faith for answers to these difficult questions are often pulled in two directions. One is the direction of pacifism, based on Jesus’ example as a suffering servant and his call to be peacemakers, forgiving our enemies. The other is the direction of just war theory, which states that in certain extreme circumstances, we have a justification – even a moral obligation – to intervene to protect the vulnerable. Coming to any sort of conclusion on the right thing to do can be an agonising process.

But we have a responsibility to undergo this process. It is worth each of us reflecting on this question:

If David Cameron asked you for your advice on whether to bomb IS, what would you say?

It is easy to avoid engaging deeply with these issues, thinking that we will never have to be the one who makes the decision. But we must not simply avoid responsibility for making a judgement on this moral dilemma and leave it in the hands of others. It is vital that we play our role as citizens and help to shape the decisions made by our leaders.

An opportunity to think and discuss

Next Tuesday, there is a great opportunity to think through these issues.  The Rt Hon Shirley Williams, a deeply experienced thinker and politician, will speak on ‘How can we best promote peace in the world?’

She grew up during the Second World War, raised by strongly pacifist parents.  Her career has involved deep engagement with international affairs, including being Gordon Brown’s Adviser on nuclear proliferation while he was Prime Minister.

Shirley writes extensively about the moral decision-making involved in questions of war in her book God and Caesar: Personal Reflections on Politics and Religion. She writes about the struggles involved in such questions but also the basis for the hope she has:

“While the challenge of evil is very great…there is also great potential force for good. The good among us often distrust power, and power in turn underestimates moral and spiritual force. But I have seen that force, in the hands of men and women without material or political power, move nations.”  

The Gladstone Lecture

If you want high quality input with a chance to grapple with these vital issues then please come along to the annual Gladstone Lecture.  Please share with anyone you think might want to come.

Rt Hon Shirley Williams: How can we best promote peace in the world?

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Inequality is bad for EVERYBODY: its time to close the gap

Pope FrancisEvery day I am struck by the incredible inequality on display in the West End of London.  I get off the bus outside Selfridge’s and see the £5,000+ designer handbags in the windows.  I walk through Marylebone past the exclusive clubs and restaurants such as the Chiltern Firehouse with security guards and paparazzi outside.  Every few minutes, Ferraris, Lamborghinis and McClarens roar past ostentatiously displaying the wealth of their owners.

But in the very same neighbourhood, the Day Centre run by the West London Mission sees a hundred homeless people every day.  These are people at the opposite end of the wealth spectrum – people who sleep rough under doorways, in parks or on night buses. At our centre they can get the very basics: a good value breakfast, showers and access to medical care.  And last year we helped over 300 homeless people come off the streets.

Gross inequality

The West End of London might be the playground of the ultra-rich but is also is the home, by a long way, of the largest population of rough sleepers in Britain today.  It is a concentrated geographical microcosm of the gross inequalities which affect the whole country.

London’s Evening Standard newspaper regularly illustrates this sharp divide.  In yesterday’s edition, an article titled Murdoch’s daughter buys home for £38.5m drooled about the heiress’ new house in St John’s Wood with its seven bedrooms and “a reception hall as big as some entire London flats”.

But at the bottom of the page, a far shorter article focussed on the rising numbers of rough sleepers in Westminster.  It was hardly sympathetic to their plight.  Instead, the journalists chose to focus on quoting complaints from local businesses that the rise in rough sleeping has “turned Park Lane into a slum”.

Hurting us all

The UK generates great wealth, but it is distributed increasingly unequally. During our years of growing prosperity, the vast majority of our increased wealth went to those who were already rich – while the poor actually became poorer.  This is neither just nor sustainable.

But this is not just an issue for those who care about social justice.  We should all care about inequality because it hurts us all.  The massive gap between the rich and the poor is bad for all of us.

Related social problems

The seminal book, The Spirit Level by Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, powerfully showed that all kinds of social problems are directly related to income inequality in developed nations. In countries where the gap between rich and poor is at its widest, mental illness, obesity, imprisonment, mistrust, low social mobility and many other social problems are all worse than in countries with more equal societies.

This is true for everyone in society, not just the lowest earners. So a wealthy person in the UK is more likely to suffer from health problems or be a victim of crime than they would be in a country which was equally affluent but had a smaller gap between rich and poor.

close-the-gap-logoThe growing gap between the rich and the poor impoverishes us all.  We have to close the gap.

This post is part of the global Blog Action Day on inequality

Posted in Homelessness, Social commentary | Tagged , | 3 Comments

Alan Henning: a ripple of hope in a world of injustice

alan-henningEach time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and crossing each other from a million different centres of energy and daring, those ripples build a current that can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance.”

Robert Kennedy, Cape Town, South Africa, 1966

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We CAN make a difference to homeless people – by Danny Kuhrt (aged 11)

Danny K Sleep outHomelessness is a man-made issue. Just like pollution, we have started it so we have to help end it.

People are living on the streets, having a nightmare life.  We cannot sit here and pretend it’s not happening.

I can’t imagine living on the streets, being insecure, always having to worry where you are going to sleep that night, or what people are going to think of you. None of us would want it to happen to us or someone we love.

Why does homelessness happen when there is enough resourses, money and land to get everyone a place to live?

Changing people’s lives

What West London Day Centre are doing is vital. They are getting people of the streets every week, and are literally changing people’s lives. They work so hard to get people in to jobs, accommodation and out of Homelessness.

The centre provides breakfast, showers, clothing, laundry and healthcare. As well as that they get advice and support to solve their problems. Money is needed though.

Our Sleep Out

To make a difference, my dad and I are sleeping rough on the streets on Friday the 10th of October (this Friday!)

Donations would be FANTASTIC and you can donate via our justgiving page.  We are trying to raise £1000 and 100% of the money will go to the day centre’s work. Let’s make a difference in the world!

Sponsor Danny for the West London Day Centre Sleep-Out here

Posted in Homelessness | 1 Comment

The J-Law photo leak: why your opinion is important – by Sophie Whitehead

Jennifer LawrenceUnless you’ve been living under a wifi-less rock for the last couple of months, you know about the celebrity nude photo flood.

I say flood rather than leak because of the sheer quantity of celebrities who were involved: Jennifer Lawrence, Selena Gomez, Rihanna, Kaley Cuoco, Vanessa Hudgens, Ariana Grande, Anna Kendrick, Cara Delevigne and Kirsten Dunst are just a small fraction of a huge list of household names.

Jennifer Lawrence has somehow become the face of the saga because of her status as Hollywood’s current “it girl”, and because frankly, there are too many victims to list every time the situation has been discussed in the media.

Female celebrities

By doing some research into the rest it seems as though every young, attractive female celebrity has been included. No one can accuse the hackers of not being thorough. Except for the obvious: they have mainly targeted female celebrities.

In fact, out of the hundreds of stars to have images of their naked bodies paraded through social networks and sharing sites, only one (American reality star Nick Hogan) is male. One.

Why? The hackers were hoping to make money from their finds, and deduced that the target market most likely to pay for images online would be heterosexual and male.

What’s your view?

The reactions of the public can be roughly grouped into three camps:

The first camp is the one I have pitched my tent in – this is not only a breach of privacy and theft of personal property but a non-consensual form of sexual violence and those responsible need to be stopped and held accountable.

The second camp is occupied by those who think this sort of thing comes with the territory of being in the public eye and those girls should have known better.

The third is made up of those who just don’t care.

People who share or look at the images are from the latter two camps. They either think the celebrities deserved it, or they simply haven’t thought about it at all. I’m not sure which view worries me more.

What it says about our culture

The whole situation says a lot about the state of our culture and western society at this point in time: how we view celebrities, how we view privacy, and how we view women’s bodies.

So many people, mostly men, have seen these images, not just as passive viewers but as active sharers too. And this behaviour is often accepted as normal by themselves and by those around them.  This is a blatant example of the false and dangerous idea that men cannot and should not be asked to control their sexual desires. The internet in this instance has removed any sense of restraint and any notion of empathy for the victims.

In one swoop these women have been reduced from individuals with complex personalities and wills of their own, into objects of sexual pleasure, without their consent.

What does it say about you?

People who haven’t thought about it, or just don’t care, have accepted that this is normal. People who think it is the fault of the celebrities, that they should not have taken the photos in the first place, are encouraging the idea that men are out of control and it is the responsibility of women to keep themselves safe.

If you are one of these people then you are part of the problem.

You may not think this deserves as much attention as it is getting, or that people like me need to calm down, but this is naïve – we all need to be aware of the affect of the media on society and on individual behaviour.

Behaviour is learned, and when this type of behaviour is seen as being accepted or as “normal”, it contributes to a culture where sexual violence is not taken seriously, where men “can’t help themselves” and where women are parts instead of people. We all deserve better.

What can you do?

Make yourself aware. Stand up for victims. Do not view or share nude photos without the consent of the subject. Report people who share these images (most sites do not allow their distribution).

Think about what messages your actions are sending. Treat everyone as a human being, whether or not they are famous.

Sophie is a creative copywriter for an advertising agency in London. Check out her blog at thinkinbrightcolours.wordpress.com

Posted in Social commentary | Tagged | 7 Comments

Church on the Corner: an Oasis in the Blur of urban life

“Jesus did not write a book but formed a community” Lesslie Newbigin

Church on the Corner, Islington

Church on the Corner, Islington

Just under twenty years ago, I borrowed my mum’s car to visit my mate Giles who had moved to King’s Cross.  When I got to his flat, he said ‘Sit down and listen to this’ and he played me Wonderwall from Oasis’ recently released album (What’s the Story) Morning Glory.

The realisation that I was listening to a great song was rudely interrupted when I remembered that I had left my wallet on the passenger seat of my mum’s car.

We legged it down the stairwell of the flats – but were too late. Some local kids had just broken in to the car, nicked the wallet and we saw them running off.  Later I would find out they used my bank card to spend the rather modest amount of £34  in ‘Caledonian Food and Wine’.

It was my first experience of this slice of North London. The year before, Giles and a small group of Christians, had planted a new church into a former pub building in between Angel and King’s Cross in Islington. It was called Church on the Corner and a few years later it became my church too.

Doing life together

Last weekend, Church on the Corner celebrated its 20th anniversary with a party and a church service (see photo).  It was brilliant to see how the church is flourishing now and it made me reflect on how much being part of that community truly enriched my life.

The best thing about being part of Church on the Corner was the sense of doing life together with others – sharing the ups, downs and realities of life as a community of people committed to following Jesus.

The church engaged in the local community in many different ways. Plays were held in the park opposite, art competitions were organised and we ran a football team. We set up a little community project to help vulnerable people called Decorating and Gardening. It was known as D&G so we nicked the Dolce & Gabanna logo.  We never heard from their lawyers.

A place of grace

But more than anything else the Church on the Corner taught me about grace. Grace was taught and grace was lived.  The Church took the Bible seriously but it also took being a community seriously.  Grace was not an abstract doctrine but a principle to be lived out.

At that time I lived in a flat on the Marquess estate on the Essex Rd.  One day the flat got completely flooded by someone breaking in to the empty flat above and and turning on the taps. A couple in the church, Tim and Justine, came over soon after and insisted I move in with them.  I stayed for over two months.

And when I moved into a flat in King’s Cross which needed loads of work, people from the church came over every night for 2 weeks to help me decorate.

Amazing grace and true community.

Go to Church

It is easy to knock church and downplay its importance.  But beliefs never become real faith unless they are expressed within community. We need others.

Charles Marsh, in his brilliant book on the role of faith in the Civil Rights movement, The Beloved Community, writes in his conclusion:

“Go to church…Go to church where God is celebrated as the creator and lord of life, where the good news of God’s overwhelming love permeates the congregation’s understanding of itself and the world. It does not matter whether the preacher is a liberal or an evangelical, a Protestant or a Catholic, an orator or a rock-and-roller, educated or uneducated, as long as the hearts and minds are opened to the peace that passes all understanding. Go to church and let the beloved world of God slowly transform your life in compassion, mercy and grace.”

This is what I found in Church on the Corner.

A place where I learnt more about the grace of the One whom (in the immortal words of Noel Gallagher) “Just maybe, is gonna be the one that saves me“.

Church on the Corner website

Posted in Theology & Church | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Fighting dirty in the battle for school places

Muddy TomThis week, a mother was convicted of forgery after she submitted a fake tenancy agreement in order to secure a place at a high performing school for her daughter. She was fined £500 and sentenced to 100 hours of community service.

Many parents might have sympathy for her. The magistrate in the case, Michael Peacock, sounded like he did: “You are obviously a very good and conscientious mother and like all good mothers you want your kid to go to the best school available. We hear of people buying expensive houses in expensive streets and so on, in order to get into a certain catchment area”.

But, as he summed up, his judgment was clear: “Whatever you do it’s got to be within the law. What you did was dishonest. It was cheating, cheating the system.”

Competitive behaviour

There are few issues that create the kind of anxiety and competitive behaviour among parents more than the battle for school places. Recent figures show an increasing number of parents are giving false information to secure places for their children at the most sought-after schools.

Over the past five years, more than 700 children are believed to have had their places withdrawn after false information was submitted on application forms. In the past year alone, some 420 parents were suspected of cheating to ensure their children get into the best primary and secondary schools, a rise of 13 per cent on last year.

Entwined with Christianity

This issue is closely entwined with Christianity, because frequently it is church schools that parents are keen for their children to attend.

Recent media reports also refer to
parents who have falsely claimed their children have been baptised. And although it could not be counted as legal fraud, there is the common issue of people attending church just to get their child a place at a church school. It’s such an established route to avoid the cost of private education, that it has its own catch-phrase: “Get on your knees to avoid the fees”.

‘Divine and dusty’

Rather than simply condemning parents, it’s worth reflecting on the root causes. For me, these issues illustrate the complex mixture of good and bad, ‘the divine and the dusty’, which is within all of us.

On one hand, the commitment, care and sacrificial love that most parents show towards their children embodies the best of human nature. Whether religious or not, for many the bond of love for their children is a sacred thing and parents want the best for their offspring.

Anxiety and pride

And yet, on the other hand, parenting also reveals a darker side of human nature, one that is deeply susceptible to the distorting effects of anxiety and pride.

Anxiety can be the default setting for modern parenting. Schooling worries are fueled further by league tables and Ofsted judgments. The fear that our decisions will mean our children miss out on life changing experiences can haunt parents like a persistent ghost.

Pride is often the flipside of anxiety. Even more than the houses we own or the cars we drive, children can become emblems of parental achievement. Living embodiments of our marvelous balance of skills and values. Sure, we love them, but we also love what they say about us. I tend to tell the stories that make me look good.

The problem with Jesus

My oldest son has just started at a local comprehensive school. He has had a really positive start but inevitably it has been a time of increased anxiety for all of us.  For us faith and prayer has been more relevant than ever. But it has also made me reflect on Andy Dorton’s perceptive comment on faith in an urban context:

“The problem with Jesus is that he never had kids: claim he understands all our temptations if you like, but he never had kids.”

Justice rather than self-seeking

Last week at the local Church of England church connected to my son’s new school, they held a special service for the school. A prayer was said, summing up so well a Christian hope for what education can bring:

“For all involved in the task of education, that it may be devoted to justice rather than self-seeking, equality rather than privilege and the creation of community rather than division.”

I know a lot of people, whether Christians or not, who would respond to this prayer with a hearty ‘Amen’.

This article was originally written for the EA’s Friday Night Theology

Posted in Social commentary | 4 Comments

Is war a necessary evil? – by Danny Kuhrt (aged 11)

WAR NECCASARY EVILWar is the worst thing known to man. People dying at terrifying rates. The Chance of dying at any second. It is a horrible thing. Yet, sometimes it is necessary. You cannot let sometime storm into your country, kill everyone, abuse you and become powerful for being evil. When Hitler invaded Poland, they couldn’t just stand there and let it happen. It would have been a bloodbath. There is one thing worse than war: Massacre

If one person invaded the world and no one fought one person would have complete control. You must fight back. Or, if it is impossible to win, surrender. War is necessary. For example if the allies hadn’t beaten Germany in WW2 Jews would have been hunted out of existence. The Eradication of a race. That is massacre.

A war has a terrible consequence on everyone, even slightly. If the front line is on your land or in your city you are very likely to get caught in the crossfire. If your country is in the war you will either have to go or see loved ones go. You also have to suffer either bombing or the threat of it. Lastly, everyone else in the world is put under threat and their politicians have to make the tough decision: should we join in, and if we do, who should we support?

The dictionary definition of war is fighting, but it is so much more than that. It is sadness. It is worry. It is dread. It is so much more than fighting. War must be avoided unless it’s desperate. It is a nightmare that we, as the most intelligent species on the planet, should be able to avoid. But if there is a madman like Napoleon or Hitler it is necessary. It is Evil. That is the answer to the question, but it can be necessary in dire times where common sense deserts people. We must put our every attention into preventing the things that lead to war: rivalry, tension, idiots and the desperation to have power.

War is evil. But we can avoid it. If we all work together and be smart, we can prevent it.

Danny Kuhrt lives in Streatham.  This essay was a homework assignment from his school, St Mark’s C of E Academy, Mitcham.  

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‘The Book of Forgiving’ by Desmond & Mpho Tutu [Review]

book-forgiving“Forgiveness is not easy, but it is the path to healing. It was not easy for Nelson Mandela to spend twenty-seven years in prison, but when people say to me what a waste it was, I say no, it was not a waste. It took twenty-seven years for him to be transformed from an angry, unforgiving young radical into an icon of reconciliation, forgiveness and honour who could go onto lead a country back from the brink of civil war and self-destruction.”

Archbishop Desmond Tutu received world-wide recognition (and the Nobel Peace Prize) for the moral and spiritual leadership he gave in opposition to South Africa’s apartheid regime. Then in the post-apartheid era, President Mandela asked him to Chair the Truth and Reconciliation Commission which helped South Africa address the crimes committed during that era without bitter recrimination. His book No Future Without Forgiveness tells the incredible story of the commission.

Personal and practical

For these reasons, Desmond Tutu is best known for being a Christian whose faith has helped influence the public and political climate of his country.  The best thing about this new book, jointly authored with his daughter, is how personal and practical it is.

I am sure that everyone reading this is in someway burdened with pain and hurts from their past.  Because of the danger that we turn people like Tutu into superheroes, it is significant that both co-authors frame the book so personally: Desmond Tutu writing about the pain of witnessing his father’s verbal and physical abuse towards his mother as a young boy and Mpho Tutu writing about the trauma of finding her housekeeper, Angela, brutally murdered in her home.

It is worth stating that the book has a whole section of what forgiveness is not. The authors are clear that forgiveness is not weakness, it is not a subversion of justice and it is not forgetting what happened.  Perhaps most helpfully, they share that it is not easy.

Healing

Despite the challenges, both co-authors are clear that it is the path to healing, restoration and freedom:

“Are you hurt and suffering? Is in the injury new, or is it an old unhealed wound?  Know that what was done to you was wrong, unfair, and undeserved. You are right to be outraged.  And it is perfectly normal to want to hurt back when you have been hurt. But hurting back rarely satisfies. We think it will, but it doesn’t.  If I slap you back after you slap me, it does not lessen the sting I feel on my own face, not does it diminish my sadness as to the fact that you have struck me. Retaliation gives, at best, only momentary respite from our pain. The only way to experience healing and peace is to forgive. Until we forgive, we remain locked out of the possibility of experiencing healing and freedom, locked out of the possibility of peace.” (p.16)

The Fourfold Path

At the heart of the book is the ‘Fourfold path of forgiveness’ which is as follows:

1. Telling the Story
2. Naming the Hurt
3. Granting Forgiveness
4. Renewing or Releasing the Relationship
 

This framework offers a ‘theory’ of forgiveness that both rings true to my experience and also corresponds with good theology.  Truth - through telling the story and naming the hurt - are essential stages of authentic forgiveness. We should never pretend that hurtful things have not happened, they need to be dealt with in the ‘fierce light of truth’.

Practical exercises

Finally, what makes this book so special is how practical it is.  Each section ends with accessible and simple exercises which help the reader actually engage in the process of forgiveness rather than analyse it from a safe distance.  It was not easy spending a whole morning carrying a stone around in my left hand, but it brought home to me the issues of unforgiveness that I carry around more than just thinking about them ever could!

The Book of Forgiving is a beautifully distilled book, full of moving personal story, convincing theory, challenging practical exercise and deep spirituality.  I would highly recommend it for anyone – because we all carry the scars of pain that we have either caused or been a victim of.  We all need hope and we all need forgiveness.

Buy The Book of Forgiving by Desmond and Mpho Tutu

Posted in Ethics & Christian living, Recommended books | Tagged | Leave a comment

Loch Mess: the Caledonian Crisis, 2034 – a blog post from the future

ScotlandFlagYesterday saw a marked escalation of the conflict between England and Scotland.  In a statement released by Downing Street, Prime Minister Euan Blair confirmed the significant expansion of English military action:

“I have ordered reinforcements to bolster the British troops placed along the Scottish border.  Operation Hadrian has being stepped up to maintain the integrity of our borders”

In addition the Prime Minister confirmed that a massive joint manoeuvre had been launched with Russian forces to “protect and secure the international business interests” around Aberdeen, the centre of Scotland’s oil industry.  It is believed that around 15,000 troops, the majority of whom are Russian, have landed in the Scottish Highlands and have effectively sealed off Aberdeen from the rest of Scotland.

Roots of the crisis

The Caledonian Crisis has its roots in the Bank of England’s decision in 2015 to give Scotland ten year’s notice to stop using the Sterling currency after they voted for independence from the UK.

Scotland’s planned transition to the Euro by 2025 was then derailed by the public anger created by Scotland coming last in the 2022 Eurovision Song Contest.  Many had believed that Scotland’s entry, from veteran duo The Proclaimers, would win the contest.  But despite critical acclaim they were awarded Nil Points.   This international snub kick-started the ‘Nil Points = No Euro’ campaign in which successfully convinced the Scottish government to create its own currency.

Loch Mess

However attempts to form their own currency hit problems when Rangers fans felt the new proposed bank notes featured too much Celtic green and white. The uncertainty around the future of the currency, dubbed ‘Loch Mess’ by English media, drove Scotland into hyper-inflation and financial meltdown. Glasgow and Edinburgh have experienced serious unrest as mass unemployment and shortage of food bites hard.

Throughout the 2020s, conflict between Scots and English affected all major cities.  This followed the Special Powers (Scotland) Act which made the public wearing of kilts illegal, banned the film Braveheart and only allowed Irish Whiskey (with an ‘e’) to be drunk in England.  All food stuffs with a ‘distinctly Scottish connection’ were banned after widespread rumours of extremists concealing explosives as Haggis.

As disruption continued, the English government pushed ahead in 2030 with the forced repatriation of ‘anyone with a discernable Scottish accent’ from English territory.  Overnight, Scottish people living and working in England went into hiding and many enrolled in elocution lessons to stop saying ‘aye’ and ‘wee’.  Security forces continue to search for those living amongst us as ‘closet Scots’.

Escalation

Yesterday’s the English government’s military actions mark a rapid escalation in the level of the conflict. As ever oil is at the heart of the issue.  During the years of uncertainty, more and more of Scotland’s oil industry was bought up by Russian oligarchs.  And once the current crisis started, England became under increasing pressure from Moscow to take action. As the Prime Minister Blair said

“Along with our Russian allies, we have secured Aberdeen in order to protect the long term business interests of the international community.  Our nation has a long and impressive history of wars fought to protect oil interests and I fully intend to maintain this proud tradition.” 

When questioned on why Russia were so involved, the PM replied:

“England can learn a lot from how they dealt with their trouble-makers in the former Ukraine region.  Plus they’ve opened some great restaurants in Knightsbridge.”

Speaking from his Presidential Palace of Balmoral, Scottish Head of State Alex Salmond declared that the English aggression would be met with similar force:

“They may take away our oil, but they can never take away our Freedom!”

It was only twenty years ago that the people of Scotland voted for independence from the United Kingdom.  Surely no one could have predicted the way events have unravelled since that that fateful decision back in 2014.

Posted in Social commentary | Tagged | 2 Comments